Super high density almond crops

The success of Agromillora’s super high density approach in olive groves encouraged us to apply this system to other species. As a result of this approach, and taking advantage of recently-developed genetic improvement programme by our R&D department on new rootstocks, the Rootpac®20 dwarfing rootstock was obtained, designed for adapting several species to the high-density system.

Thus, since 2010 we started developing high-density almond tree plantations to address the problems of traditional systems. Currently there are more than 2,500 ha of super high density almond trees scattered around the world: Spain, Portugal, Italy, USA, Morocco, Tunisia, Chile and Turkey among others.

Learn about projects with SHD crops.

System features

  • SHD plantation with Smarttree®.
  • Rootpac®20 in-vitro clone pattern.
  • High compatibility with wide range of varieties.
  • Plantation patterns (3–3.5 x 1–1.2 m). High plantation density (+2,000 plants/ha).
  • Orientation: N-S orientation makes it possible to reduce the street width without shading.
  • Harvesting with over-the-row machine.
  • Fully mechanised pruning.


  • Total mechanisation from the moment of planting , with the aim of reducing costs and labout.
  • Fully mechanised harvesting: Increase in speed and efficiency using over-the-row machines.
  • Early entry into production (year 3), with faster amortisation of the investment.
  • Less cultivation work and labour, which is increasingly scarce and costly.
  • Better fruit quality. The fruit does not touch the ground and contamination risks are avoided (aflatoxins and salmonella). Greater uniformity of size and maturation.
  • Increase in crop profitability and sustainability. The amount of inputs and soil maintenance is less, no dust generating during harvesting and greater efficiency in the use of water, fertilizers and phytosanitary products.
  • Allows having almond tree plantations in shallow soils, not possible with the traditional system.

Key factors

  • Smarttree® plant format, specifically designed for super high density plantations.
  • Genetic material. Choosing a low–vigour rootstock is crucial to the success of the plantation. The Rootpac®20 pattern [Link to Rootpac®20] used for a plum hybrid (P. besseyi x P. cerasifera) developed by the genetic improvement programme carried out by our R&D department, has proven to be a high-value agronomic alternative, providing low vigour, improving yields per hectare and boosting farm management. The Rootpac®20 dwarfing rootstock has 60% less vigour than patterns such as GF–677 or Nemaguard.
  • Allows maintaining an appropriate canopy volume and crop management to maximise fructification, the interception and penetration of light and to achieve a continuous hedge with numerous branches in the least possible time.
  • Planting pattern 3-3.5 x 1-1.2 m (+2000 plantas/ha). No trellis and one stake per tree.
  • They should be self-fertile varieties adapted to the characteristics of each region, resistant to diseases and late-flowering if there is risk of frost in the spring.

Some adapted varieties








The Smarttree® plant format is specifically designed for the super high density system. Smarttree® plants are the perfect solution for the new high-density almond plantations. They involve a substantial reduction in plantation, crop handling and harvesting costs.

The combination comprising the Rootpac®20 dwarfing rootstock and the wide range of grafting varieties that we make available to customers are the best resource to successfully tackle super high density almond tree plantation projects.

Smarttree® Features

  • Total mechanisation from the moment of planting, unlike the central axis layout, which implies significant labour savings.
  • Maximum genetic and health quality.
  • Grafted in a controlled and aseptic environment, to reduce disease risk.
  • Shorter nursery production time.
  • Plant, 60 cm high with numerous branches from 50 cm, with stake.
  • Strong root system and developed in inert substrate.
  • Plant provided with a plastic protector to protect it from the use of herbicides at the moment of planting and avoiding suckers.
  • Ease of transportation and planting.

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